New Report Explores Challenges for Women’s Small Businesses in Indonesia
August 21, 2013
In early September, at the annual meetings of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Bali, Indonesia, The Asia Foundation will release a study examining how a variety of social, political, and economic factors influence women’s capacity to engage in small and medium enterprise (SME) in Indonesia. The report, “Access to Trade and Growth of Women’s SMEs in APEC Developing Economies: Evaluating the Business Environment in Indonesia,” follows a February 2013 study, sponsored by APEC, which examined similar factors in Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Together, the studies provide important insights into the institutional and cultural barriers that disproportionately affect women’s participation in business in these economies.
The Indonesia research, like the previous study, was undertaken in recognition of three main characteristics of economic growth in Asia. First, SMEs dominate the business landscape in Asian economies: they make up over 90 percent of all businesses, provide 60-80 percent of employment, and generate 30 percent of exports. Second, women account for over half of the total population of Asia and are active participants in the workforce (including 51 percent in Indonesia), but face particular challenges to starting and growing SMEs. Third, women’s full and equal economic participation is crucial to future growth. The United Nations estimates that Asia-Pacific economies could grow by an additional $89 billion per year if women realized their full economic potential, and that output per worker could rise 7-18 percent if business opportunities for women and men were equal. This much is clear: SMEs are essential drivers of Asian economies, and women are critical to SME growth in these countries. The study identifies the barriers that remain to women’s full participation in SMEs.
The research for the Indonesia study consisted of two parts: an extensive survey of 150 female and male SME owners, and qualitative research including interviews and focus group discussions. The survey controlled for firm-level factors like age, sector, and size, in order to single out the unique challenges that women-owned SMEs face in comparison to men-owned SMEs. Three broad categories of challenges were identified:
Economic and Financial Barriers
- Financial: interest rates, loan applications, collateral requirements
- Operational: employee hiring and training, turnover, business technologies
- Networks: business associations, informal networks
Government and Policy Barriers
- Perceptions of government support of business
- Access to business information
- Government services
- Crime and safety
Social Support Barriers
- Domestic responsibilities
- Role models: relatives in business, mentors
The report will be released during APEC’s 37th Small and Medium Enterprises Working Group (SMEWG) Meeting in Bali September 4-5. In partnership with the Chevron Corporation, The Asia Foundation will hold a panel to discuss issues and recommendations highlighted in the research. The panel will feature Asia Foundation experts, including Carol Yost, the Foundation’s senior director of the Women’s Empowerment Program, and its chief economist Véronique Salze-Lozac’h. They will be joined by four women entrepreneurs from each of the four APEC economies studied (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand). The theme of the Bali panel underscores the priority APEC has placed on understanding and promoting women’s economic equality in Asia, at both the country and regional levels. Thus, the panel discussion will include recommendations for specific steps that governments and regional organizations can take to promote access to business opportunities for women.
Recognizing that the private sector plays an essential role in promoting women’s full economic participation in Asia, results of the research from all four countries will also be presented by Véronique Salze-Lozac’h at the CSR Asia Summit in Bangkok on September 17-18. Leaders from business, finance, government, and philanthropy will convene to identify more inclusive and accessible business strategies for Asia’s future growth.
The Asia Foundation’s research will help guide both public policy dialogue and private sector interventions, to maximize women’s impact on Asia’s economic growth and development. The full report will be available at asiafoundation.org.
Laura Seaman is a junior associate with The Asia Foundation’s Economic Development Programs in San Francisco. She can be reached at [email protected]. The views and opinions expressed here are those of the individual author and not those of The Asia Foundation.
About our blog, In AsiaIn Asia is a weekly in-depth, in-country resource for readers who want to stay abreast of significant events and issues shaping Asia's development, hosted by The Asia Foundation. Drawing on the first-hand insight of over 70 renowned experts in over 20 countries, In Asia delivers concentrated analysis on issues affecting each region of Asia, as well as Foundation-produced reports and polls.
In Asia is posted and distributed every Wednesday evening, Pacific Time and is accessible via email and RSS. If you have any questions, please send an email to [email protected].
ContactFor questions about In Asia, or for our cross-post and re-use policy, please send an email to [email protected].
The Asia Foundation
465 California St., 9th Floor
San Francisco, CA 94104
PO Box 193223
San Francisco, CA 94119-3223
THE LATEST ACROSS ASIA
Columbia University Weatherhead East Asian Institute: “Asian Views on America’s Role in Asia:” Video and Photos
December 2, 2016
NPR: Amid Economic Crisis, Mongolians Risk Their Lives For Do-It-Yourself Mining
December 1, 2016
Research Reveals Cambodian Television Rife with Depictions of Violence Against Women
November 30, 2016
Charter Outlines 10 Actions to Prevent Violence Against Women and Children in Timor-Leste
November 30, 2016
Asia Foundation Releases Study of Private Perceptions of Corruption (STOPP) in Mongolia
November 30, 2016
Public Program: The Asia Foundation’s 2016 Survey of the Afghan People
Wednesday, December 7, 2016
Asian Views on America’s Role in Asia: The Future of the Rebalance
Recommendations for the incoming U.S. president on policy toward Asia