Insights and Analysis

Picturing: The Promise of Libraries in Myanmar

April 2, 2014

By Wendy Rockett, Wine Wai Wai Win


Libraries and reading have a special place in Myanmar society. Yangon, the country’s largest city, is teeming with book vendors and libraries. The American Center and British Council libraries were venerated sources of up-to-date publications during Myanmar’s deepest periods of isolation. Smaller community libraries like this one have cropped up in response to community needs. Photo/ Geoffrey Hiller


However, the 70 percent of Myanmar’s population who live in rural areas face a different reality than the urban residents of Yangon. Electricity, paved roads, and other basic infrastructure services are still largely missing in these areas, making it difficult for rural communities to benefit from the rapid development experienced by the country’s urban centers. Photo/ Micah B Rubin


Although a rural village may lack reliable electricity or running water, chances are they have a library. Myanmar has close to 5,000 active libraries, many of which are in rural areas. The Asia Foundation recently conducted the first-ever national survey on Myanmar’s libraries and the reverence for these institutions were one of the most striking findings. When asked whether libraries have an impact on community life, 97 percent of people said they have a positive influence on their communities. But the majority of village libraries, such as this one, are severely under-resourced, lacking basic resources like books and furniture. Photo/Wendy Rockett


With greater investment, libraries have great potential to become community-based information hubs. A mobile library in Kawmhu – a rural district about two hours from Yangon – is attempting to lead the way. Kawmhu’s 123,000 residents are mainly farmers and fishermen. Despite its proximity to Yangon, it experiences similar development challenges as other rural districts in the country. For instance, electricity is unreliable and a fixed line internet connection unavailable. Moreover, good quality books are scarce. Out of Kawmhu’s 126 villages, 28 have community libraries but they are not well stocked. Photo/Wendy Rockett


Daw Khin Kyi Foundation (DKKF), established in 2010 by Nobel Laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in memory of her mother, began a mobile library in 2013 to improve access to information in Kawmhu. Its collection sets it apart from other libraries in the area – the books are current, high-quality Myanmar-language publications. The library bus, donated by Hino Motors, brings books directly to schools and libraries in 23 villages on a 2-week rotational basis. Above, the typical frenzy of browsing and borrowing that occurs at each mobile library stop. Photo/Wendy Rockett


Through the generous support of individuals who contributed to our Books for Myanmar Fund, The Asia Foundation made a grant to the DKKF mobile library for the purchase of its first collection of local-language books. The library currently has more than 13,000 adult and children’s books in rotation and serves 4,500 students and teachers. Photo/Wendy Rockett


The principal of Zayetkone Village primary school, one of the schools on the mobile library’s route, said that the students would not otherwise have access to books as appealing as the library provides. One hundred of her 166 students are members. Schools in Myanmar typically do not have their own libraries. The only books available for students to borrow are stored in the principal’s office and are often government-issued textbooks like these. Photo/Wendy Rockett


In addition to the mobile service, DKKF organizes computer training, English-language classes taught by the British Council, and education and health talks at their base of operations in the Kawmhu administrative office. Ko Saw Nyi San, operations manager for the mobile library project, stands in the middle of their computer room. DKKF is trying to persuade a telecom company to bring internet to Kawmhu so that they may expand their computer program to include internet training. Photo/Wendy Rockett


Since re-establishing a resident office in Myanmar last year, The Asia Foundation’s Books for Asia program has supported local organizations such as DKKF to improve access to information and assist library development. And, since 2007, Books for Asia has donated approximately 36,000 books each year to educational institutions throughout the country in partnership with the U.S. Embassy’s American Center. Photo/Wendy Rockett

Related locations: Myanmar
Related programs: Books for Asia, Inclusive Economic Growth
Related topics: Education, International Development, Literacy


  1. Hi Wendy and Wine,

    I came across this article as I was looking up libraries all over the world for my project (non profit, just for fun) on libraries.

    The goal of the project is to preserve the memories of today’s libraries, in the voices of their users with stacks of paper books and reading spaces, before the inevitable digitization transforms them. The project is global, multi-author and experimental.

    Please check us out at

    We are inviting entries from all over the world, and have had some success in the short two weeks since launch. If you, or any of the users of Myanmar’s libraries would like to write about your favorite library or library experience for our project, we would be honored. Most of the folk visiting the website don’t know much about Myanmar’s libraries and would be very interested. Regards, Rekha

  2. Thanks for your message, Rekha! I will let our Myanmar partners know about your project. I’m sure they’d be happy to contribute. Congrats on the response you’ve received so far and best of luck with it. -Wendy

  3. Thank you Wendy. Looking forward to hearing from Myanmar.,they can visit the blog at and respond via email to [email protected]


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