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Peace & Conflict in Myanmar


Covid-19 and Complex Conflicts: The Pandemic in Myanmar’s Unsettled Regions

October 14, 2021


The Covid-19 crisis has had mixed impacts on Myanmar’s disparate conflicts and the ongoing peace process. The pandemic response has highlighted deep fragmentation across Myanmar society, in particular along ethnic lines. Large parts of the population, especially in areas affected by violent conflict, rely on civil society or ethnic armed groups for… Read more


Fiscal Federalism in Myanmar Training Modules

November 14, 2018


Download all Fiscal Federalism in Myanmar training modules.


The Contested Areas of Myanmar: Subnational Conflict, Aid, and Development

October 16, 2017


Far from being a problem restricted to the periphery, Myanmar’s subnational conflicts are widespread and shape many of the country’s most pressing national challenges. Subnational conflicts directly affect up to one-quarter of the population. For more than half a century they have severely impacted the entire country’s political trajectory, economi… Read more


Ceasefires, Governance, and Development: The Karen National Union in Times of Change

February 24, 2017


The Asia Foundation is pleased to present this report, which examines the governance dynamics in southeastern Myanmar around the 67-year-old conflict between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the Myanmar state. Ceasefires and political change over time have enabled the state to expand its presence in areas where previously only the military had op… Read more


Ethnic Armed Actors and Justice Provision in Myanmar

October 27, 2016


As a result of decades of ongoing civil war, large areas of Myanmar remain outside government rule, or are subject to mixed control and governance by the government and an array of ethnic armed actors (EAAs). These included ethnic armed organizations, with ceasefires or in conflict with the state, as well as state-backed ethnic paramilitary organiz… Read more


Strength in Diversity: Towards Universal Education in Myanmar’s Ethnic Areas

October 11, 2016


This study details the role and operations of non-state education providers in ethnic areas, specifically Mon, Shan and Karen States, and the interface with state education. This paper terms education providers connected to ethnic armed groups, and other community-based providers, as ethnic basic education providers (EBEPs), which have been providi… Read more


Violent Incidents Monitoring Systems: A Methods Toolkit

August 3, 2016


Violent Incidents Monitoring Systems: A Methods Toolkit provides practical guidance to practitioners interested in establishing a violence monitoring system. It also seeks to encourage methodological standardization across systems to make cross-country comparison easier. The guidance provided in this paper draws on the experience and lessons from t… Read more


Militias in Myanmar

July 11, 2016


The Asia Foundation report titled Militias in Myanmar provides an overview on militias in Myanmar. This report presents background information on militias and a typology of militias useful for understanding the diversity of militias operating in Myanmar. The report draws on the experiences of militias in other conflicts and examines issues related… Read more


Achieving Health Equity in Contested Areas of Southeast Myanmar

July 11, 2016


The Asia Foundation is pleased to present this research report on health equity and healthcare provision in Myanmar’s contested regions. The report provides an overview of existing health service arrangements in these areas, from both the Ministry of Health and from ethnic and community-based health organizations. It then unpacks the concept of “co… Read more


The Contested Corners of Asia – Executive Summary (Burmese)

May 4, 2016


(In Burmese) Subnational conflict is the most widespread, deadly and enduring, form of conflict in Asia. Over the past 20 years, there have been 26 subnational conflicts in South and Southeast Asia, affecting half of the countries in this region. These conflicts are among the world’s longest running armed struggles, often lasting for multiple gener… Read more