Optimizing Screening and Support Services for Gender-Based Violence and Trafficking in Persons Victims in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka
Gender-based violence (GBV) and trafficking in persons (TIP) continue to be significant concerns in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. In India and Nepal, the number of both GBV and TIP cases is high. In Sri Lanka, while GBV is high, there are comparatively fewer registered TIP cases. Commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor are the two dominant forms of trafficking in India and Nepal. In Sri Lanka, trafficking for forced labor (especially of outward-bound migrants) emerges as more common. Research suggests that female victims are more significantly affected by TIP. In 2018, for every ten victims detected globally, about five were adult women, and two were girls. In the 2016-2018 data period, 46% of victims were women, and 19% were girls. Through a gender lens and a case law analysis, UNODC noted intersections between human trafficking and domestic and intimate partner violence. Victims were subjected to multiple forms of GBV before and while being trafficked. A composite understanding (or the absence) of GBV and TIP and their intersections directly affects the identification and screening of victims. This deprives them of seeking justice and accessing services that may be limited, inadequate, uncoordinated, and with several in-built barriers. This research study, undertaken in three countries India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, is premised on exploring a deeper understanding of the intersections of TIP and GBV, the resulting impact on the identification of victims, and subsequent service delivery to victims. The study also explores whether services need integration or separation. The regional analysis is based on the findings and recommendations of the three country reports, drawing upon their similarities and differences, challenges in identifying victims of trafficking in persons and gender-based violence, and its consequential impact on service delivery to the victims.
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